PEMF Education

Our PEMF Knowledge Base is compiled from public online resources. Importantly, some of these articles may have copywrite or other restrictions. We make these articles or other content accessible for your own knowledge and to learn more about PEMF. Source information and further citations may be included in the articles. In other words, don’t blame us if it blows your mind!

Peer-Reviewed PEMF (Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Frequency) articles serve as proof that PEMF is effective treatment for many fields in medicine. Also, this page is our sanity corner; safe from the rash of misinformation and misinterpreted data you may find on the web.

There are hundreds upon hundreds of documented studies and reviews available. If something is missing, please contact us and we will find it for you.

Cell Biology

Coupling of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) therapy to molecular grounds of the cell

…it is conceivable that cells can get some “orientation” again not only with regard of space but also with regard of timing . Those space and time orientation cues give cells of inflamed zones a re-linking to the healthy tissue… Otherwise, older and stressed cells with no physiological orientation react with enhanced ROS production, pre-apoptotic signaling and signs of mitochondrial stress as well as other signs of energy… VIEW PDF

Wound Healing and Immunology

Evidence-Based Use of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy in Clinical Plastic Surgery

A review of 63 different medical studies authored by 3 MD’s and 2 PhD’s. The article is somewhat biased with the authors involved in the study device development. However, images and clinical results indicate PEMF works effectively to augment traditional treatment in repairing some really ugly surgical wounds. VIEW PDF

Immune-Modulating Perspectives for Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in Innate Immunity

Review – 120 PEMF and other studies cited – By discussing the EMF modulating effects on cell functions, we envisage the use of [PEMF] as a therapeutic agent to regulate immune responses associated with wound healing. VIEW PDF

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Electromagnetic Therapy in the Primary Care Management of Venous Leg Ulceration

Sixty-eight per cent of patients attending this dedicated clinic achieved improvements in the size of their ulcer (4, 2 1 % , healed fully) and in reduced pain levels (P < 0.05) during the trial, despite the chronicity of ulcer histories. Despite the small numbers in this pilot study, electromagnetic therapy provided significant gains in the healing of venous leg ulcers and reduction in pain. VIEW PDF

Cytokine Storm in COVID-19—Immunopathological Mechanisms, Clinical Considerations, and Therapeutic Approaches: The REPROGRAM Consortium Position Paper

Cytokine storm is an acute hyperinflammatory response that may be responsible for critical illness in many conditions including viral infections, cancer, sepsis, and multi-organ failure. The phenomenon has been implicated in critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus implicated in COVID-19. Critically ill COVID-19 patients experiencing cytokine storm are believed to have a worse prognosis and increased fatality rate. VIEW PDF

Brain Functions

Electromagnetic fields, the modulation of brain tissue functions - A possible paradigm shift in biology

W. Ross Adey,  Distinguished Professor of Physiology at Loma Linda is often cited by PEMF Marketers. Some of the language is informal but it is based on mountains of studies. Example: “Emergent concepts of tissue thresholds to EMF sensitivities address ensemble or domain functions of populations of cells, cooperatively ‘whispering together’ in intercellular communication, and organized hierarchically at atomic and molecular levels.” VIEW PDF

Increases in microvascular perfusion and tissue oxygenation via pulsed electromagnetic fields in the healthy rat brain

This is the first demonstration of the acute effects of PEMF on cerebral cortical microvascular perfusion and metabolism. Thirty minutes of PEMF treatment induced cerebral arteriolar dilation leading to an increase in micro-vascular blood flow and tissue oxygenation that persisted for at least 3 hours…These results suggest that PEMF may be an effective treatment for patients after traumatic or ischemic brain injury. VIEW PDF

Musculoskeletal Disorders

Effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in the management of osteoarthritis of the knee

A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in 1978 – Nine studies, including 483 patients – Pulsed electromagnetic fields improve clinical scores and function in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and should be considered as adjuvant therapies in their management. There is still equipoise of evidence for an effect on pain in the current literature. VIEW PDF

Low-frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy in Fibromyalgia

A Randomized, Double-blind, Sham-controlled Clinical Study (2009) – The PEMF group showed significant improvements in FIQ, VAS pain, BDI score, and SF-36 scale in all domains at the end of therapy. These improvements in FIQ, VAS pain, and SF-36 pain score during follow-up. The sham group also showed improvement were maintained on all outcome measures except total FIQ scores after treatment. At 12 weeks follow-up, only improvements in the BDI and SF-36 scores were present in the sham group. VIEW PDF

Evaluation of the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field in the management of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy

Low-frequency PEMF can be used as an adjunct in reducing neuropathic pain as well as for retarding the progression of neuropathy in a short span of time. VIEW PDF

Pulsed Magnetic Field Therapy in Refractory Neuropathic Pain Secondary to Peripheral Neuropathy

Of the 19 feet with moderate or severe pain that completed treatment, 11 completed treatment but did not complete follow-up. An intent-to-treat analysis (baseline, end of treatment, end of follow-up) based on all 19 feet demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in pain scores VIEW PDF


Mechanisms and therapeutic effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in oncology

Review – 30+ PEMF studies cited – only two clinical studies have used PEMF therapy for cancer treatment (2016). These studies show that PEMF therapy is safe and promising compared to other available cancer therapies. In the future, PEMFs could be used not only as primary therapy but also in combination with other common antineoplastic therapies. PEMF therapy presents several potential advantages including non-­invasiveness, safety, lack of toxicity for non-­cancerous cells, and the possibility of being combined with other available therapies. Indeed, PEMF stimulation has already been used in the context of various cancer types including skin, breast, prostate, hepatocellular, lung, ovar-ian, pancreatic, bladder, thyroid, and colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. VIEW PDF

Heart Disease and Circulation

Pulsed electromagnetic field improves cardiac function in response to myocardial infarction

Extracorporeal pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been shown the ability to improve regeneration in various ischemic episodes. Here, we examined whether PEMF therapy facilitate cardiac recovery in rat myocardial infarction (MI), and the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying PEMF-related therapy was further investigated. VIEW PDF

Impact of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on vascular function and blood pressure in hypertensive individuals

The present study investigated the impact of 12 weeks of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy on peripheral vascular function, blood pressure (BP), and nitric oxide. After therapy, the PEMF group demonstrated significant improvements in FMD and FMD NOR (normalized to hyperemia), but the control group did not (P = .05 and P = .04, respectively). Moreover, SBP, DBP, and MAP were reduced, but the control group did not (P = .04, .04, and .03, respectively). VIEW PDF

Bone Growth

Pulsed electromagnetic fields for the treatment of tibial delayed unions and non-unions. A prospective clinical study and review of the literature

We present the results of PEMF stimulation in treating non-infected tibial delayed unions and non-unions. Factors that might affect the success of the method were investigated and a thorough literature review was also conducted to assess the overall efficacy of the method in tibial non-united fractures.   VIEW PDF

Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation of Bone Healing and Joint Preservation: Cellular Mechanisms of Skeletal Response

The US FDA has approved pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) as a safe and effective treatment for non-unions of bone. Despite its clinical use, the mechanisms of action of electromagnetic stimulation of the skeleton have been elusive. Recently, cell membrane receptors have been identified as the site of action of PEMF. Understanding of PEMF membrane targets, and of the specific intracellular pathways involved, culminating in the synthesis of ECM proteins and reduction in inflammatory cytokines, should enhance confidence in the clinical use of PEMF  VIEW PDF

Stimulation of Bone Formation and Fracture Healing with Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields: Biological Responses and Clinical Implications

Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been used for the management of fracture delayed unions and non-unions for more than half a century already. Despite numerous studies and clinical trials, the mode of action of this non-invasive method is still debated and quantification of its effect on fracture healing is widely varied in the literature. This article mainly focuses on the cellular and molecular effect of PEMF and the overall efficacy of the method in enhancing fracture healing and promoting new bone formation. VIEW PDF

5G and Microwaves

The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field

Electromagnetic fields are recognized as hazards that affect testicular function by generating reactive oxygen species and reduce the bioavailability of androgen to maturing spermatozoa. Thus, microwave exposure adversely affects male fertility, whereas pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is a non-invasive, simple technique that can be used as a scavenger agent to combat oxidative stress. VIEW PDF

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Pulsed Magnetic Field Versus Surgery in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Double Blind Study

The most common complications in the surgery group were skin irritation and haematoma; in the splinting group it was swelling of the wrist, hand and finger. In their discussion of the results, the authors concluded that given the treatment differential and potential for adverse effects and that conservative
interventions benefited a substantial proportion of patients, current practice of a trial of conservative management with surgical release for severe or persistent symptoms is supported by evidence. VIEW PDF

Pulsed magnetic field versus ultrasound in the treatment of postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial in the women of an Egyptian population

There was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in pain level, sensory and motor distal latencies of the median nerve, and significant increase (P < 0.05) in sensory and motor conduction velocities of the median nerve and hand grip strength in both groups, with a significant difference between the two groups in favour of pulsed electromagnetic field treatment. However, the functional status scale showed intergroup no significant difference (P > 0.05). In conclusion, while the symptoms were alleviated in both groups, pulsed electromagnetic field was more effective than pulsed ultrasound in treating postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome. VIEW PDF

Veterinary Applications

An economic feasibility analysis of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy as an equine therapeutic modality

The results show that PEMF therapy is the most technically and operationally feasible option of the aforementioned modalities for a mobile business model due to its variety of applications, ability for use before and after performances, reasonable startup cost and lack of veterinary oversight required. . VIEW PDF


Effects of Low-Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on High-Altitude Stress Ulcer Healing in Rats

In the current study, the efects of low-frequency PEMFs on stomach High-Altitude Stress Ulcer(HSU) healing were systematically investigated in HSU rat models. The results indicated that lowfrequency PEMFs can penetrate body tissues to remarkably accelerate HSU healing. The combined efects of PEMFs were positive during HSU healing. VIEW PDF

Magnetic fields modulate metabolism and gut microbiome in correlation with Pgc-1? expression: Follow-up to an in vitro magnetic mitohormetic study

The combination of PEMFs and exercise for 6 weeks enhanced running performance and upregulated muscular and adipose Pgc-1a transcript levels, whereas exercise alone was incapable of elevating Pgc-1a levels. Hence, short-term PEMF treatment was sufficient to instigate PGC-1a-associated transcriptional cascades governing systemic mitohormetic adaptations, whereas longer-term PEMF treatment was capable of inducing related metabolic adaptations independently of exercise. VIEW PDF

Quantum PEMF

Significance of Electromagnetic Potentials in the Quantum Theory

In classical electrodynamics, the vector and scalar potentials were first introduced as a convenient mathematical aid for calculating the fields. Nevertheless, these equations, as well as the physical quantities, are all gauge invariant; so that it may seem that even in quantum mechanics, the potentials themselves
have no independent significance. In this paper, we shall show that the above conclusions are not correct and that a further interpretation of the potentials is needed in the quantum mechanics VIEW PDF

Acupuncture with PEMF

Electromagnetic Acupuncture to Enhance the Effects of Manual Acupuncture on Recovery from Muscle Fatigue of the Quadriceps

The aim of this study was to investigate a new method of manual acupuncture that used a magnetic field to stimulate only one acupoint vertically. The researchers developed an eight-channel electromagnetic acupuncture (EMA) system that uses a solenoid-type electrode to insert the manual acupuncture needle into a hole in an electrode. The study confirmed that compared with manual acupuncture, EMA resulted in better recovery from muscle fatigue. VIEW PDF

Comparison of 2 Methods of Non-invasive Treatment between Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation and Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation as replacement of Invasive Manual Acupuncture

The aim of this study was to find the non-invasive optimal alternative method for Manual Acupuncture. Existing researches had reported that Transcutaneous
Electrical Acupoint Stimulation (TEAS) was an effective treatment method instead of manual acupuncture. The results of this study demonstrated that PEMFs were better than TEAS as a non-invasive method to replace the manual acupuncture. VIEW PDF

An Historical Review and Perspective on the Impact of Acupuncture on U.S. Medicine and Society

It took almost 300 years for Europe and 400 years for the United States to finally appreciate the therapeutic value of acupuncture. Findings from basic medical research that acupuncture stimulation causes release of endorphins, serotonin, enkephalins, and c-amino-butyric acid (GABA; a major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain), norepinephrine, and dopamine helped to explain the acupuncture effect on a biomedical and pharmacological basis that was acceptable to the Western medical establishment VIEW PDF

Kidney Disease

Effects of extreme low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field added to kinesitherapy procedure on quality of life in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis

In study group treatment with ELF-PEMF significantly improved FACIT Fatigue v4 scale score as well as physical health, physical functioning, bodily pain and energy/fatigue domains of SF=36v2 scale. The Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study, a cohort study, found that dialysis patients engaged in more frequent exercise presented a significantly reduced mortality rate versus less active peers2 Conclusion. ELF-PEMF could be a additional and safe strategy for improving the quality of life in patients with ESRD on dialysis. VIEW PDF